egypt: from pharaohs to feluccas
The Great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx in the Western Desert, 13 km southwest of Cairo, constructed between c.2580-2560 BC. Saladin Citadel of Cairo, Medieval Islamic fortification, Mokattam Hill. The Great Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha, commissioned between 1830 and 1848 - built in the Ottoman architectural mosque style. The view from the Citadel, looking towards Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, Old Cairo - built during the Mamluk Islamic Era between 1356 and 1359. Garbage City: Slum settlement at the base of Mokattam Hill, home to the Zabbaleen (garbage collectors), who sort through waste to retrieve useful or recyclable items - various products from recycled materials are made and sold from here. Coptic Christians were predominant settlers in the area. Coffee is a popular custom around the world, and in Egypt it tends to be a lot more casual. 'Pop up' cafés appear wherever space allows - on a bridge alongside a busy thoroughfare in the middle of Cairo, beside the Nile next to a road, or under a tree in Abu Simbel. You can catch up with new and old friends, wherever and whenever. In Old Cairo, a major souk serving both locals and tourists alike is Khan el-Khalili. It dates to 1511, when Sultan al-Ghuri, Egypt's last powerful Mamluk sultan (1501-1516), demolished and rebuilt the area to create a commercial complex with monumental gates and a regular grid plan.